Automatic X-ray inspection with fleX Line · 3D

Flexible inline X-ray system for inspection of assembled printed circuit boards

The fleX Line · 3D is a versatile inline X-ray system for the automatic X-ray inspection of high-end electronics. It is capable of inspecting small light as well as large and heavy assemblies fully automatically.

A special feature is the high-precision 6-axis system. It allows 2D, 2.5D and 3D X-ray imaging while the test object remains stationary. Depending on the application, the system can be equipped with either line or area detectors. A comprehensive software package offers, among other things, a wizard-based offline inspection program creation, an intuitive and app-based machine software as well as a digital maintenance concept.

The fleX Line monitors and calibrates itself. The X-ray system can be integrated into a Smart Factory of the Industry 4.0 world via various interfaces.


of the

large assemblies

1200 mm x 508 mm

15 kg

Handling time

< 5 s

2D, 2.5D  and


The comprehensive software package consists of several modules. You control the app-based machine software PILOT Inspect via intuitive touch operation in the familiar style of a smartphone. New operators can be trained in the shortest time.

The offline programming software PILOT AXI provides wizard-supported test program creation with integrated CAD data import, design library and a wide range of test functions.

The verification software PILOT Verify for classifying the detected defects displays fault images, comparison images, 2D/ 2.5D and 3D slice images as well as 3D volume reconstructions using CTview.

Networking of the AXI system with the outside world is ensured by PILOT Connect via various MES interfaces.

CTview - the 3D visualisation for automated X-ray inspection of PCBs

Technical data for the fleX Line · 3D

  • Click here for technical data
    Sensor technology

    option 1: Ultra High Speed Line Scan CCD detectors

    option 2: 6 megapixel flat panel detektor

    X-ray source130 kV  max. 39 W,  maintenance-free

    5 - 30 µm (freely selectable)

    Image acquisition

    2D, 2.5D, 3D (slice images with planarCT)

    Axis system

    X, Y, Z, U, V, W

    Resolution1 µm


    PCB size

    max. 610 mm x 508 mm (option for 1200 mm x 508 mm)

    min. 60 mm x 50 mm

    PCB thickness

    0,4 mm -13 mm

    PCB weight

    max. 15 kg

    Component clearance top side

    max. 80 mm

    Component clearance bottom side

    max. 80 mm

    Transport height

    870 mm – 970 mm

    Test method

    2D, 2.5D, 3D

    Solder jointsinsufficient/excessive solder, short circuit, open circuit, voids, solder balls, lifted lead, head-in-pillow, ...


    Position xy, rotation, missing, tombstone, billboard, ...

    Final assembly test / battery inspection

    Presence, too many/too few components, solder balls, metal residues, ...

    Dimension (B x D X H)/ weight

    1950 mm  x 2002 mm x 1800 mm / 4,5 t


    400 V, 3-phase / 6 bar compressed air

X-ray source

130 kV



maintenance concept


MES plug-ins
ASYS Pulse

The X-ray inspection system in use

The fleX Line allows the inspection of DUTs with a size of up to 1200 mm x 508 mm and a weight of up to 15 kg. Standard tasks include the inspection of BGA, QFN, THT, LED and LGA solder joints. All other solder joints, whether visible or concealed, as well as press-fit connectors can be inspected in detail.

Due to the unique moving concept, in which the DUT remains stationary during image acquisition, the system can be used for the inspection of flexible printed circuit boards or also for the final inspection of mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, notebooks and wearables). The DUTs do not need to be additionally fixed. The fleX Line inspects heavy DUTs on product carriers just as reliably as loose DUTs lying in blisters or on product carriers.



Final inspection


workpiece carrier

manual analysis
test program &
CAD Data

Highest precision through granite-based axis system

The fleX Line · 3D has a precise, highly rigid, granite-based 6-axis system. The solid granite base ensures extreme straightness, flatness and parallelism. This results in a high movement speed of the image acquisition components with excellent repeatability at the same time.

► The result: ultra-clear, repeatable and consistent X-ray images for maximum defect detection in 2D, 2.5D and 3D X-ray.

The DUT remains stationary

  • X-ray source and detector move around the DUT to generate an image
  • No blurred image recordings by swinging of thin PCB
  • Assemblies in carriers do not require additional fixing

► The X-ray images remain sharp.

No swinging of
large & thin

Inspection of DUTs in

image acquisition

test result

Self-monitoring and calibration

The fleX Line · 3D monitors and calibrates itself - completely independently thanks to integrated tools. This ensures consistent image quality with constant measured values.

In addition, the system features a machine stability analysis tool. The permanently integrated and long-term stable feature has real solder joints of different designs and can be used to perform an MSA 1 (repeat test). The result of the MSA is an automatically generated protocol that can be used for certifications.

Digital maintenance concept

The AXI systems feature a digital maintenance concept. The systems create usage-based maintenance plans and monitor themselves independently.

Every key component of the machine is monitored and a detailed maintenance overview is created. A preventive maintenance plan reduces maintenance and machine downtime and thus costs. Usage-related values such as kilometres driven on the axes, pneumatic strokes and X-ray source beam hours are monitored.

When the warning thresholds are exceeded, preventive maintenance can be planned - and downtimes are reduced.

Flexible adjustable image capture

The integrated 6-axis system allows the height adjustment of the X-ray source and the detector. This enables the image acquisition geometry to be flexibly adapted to the DUT in terms of resolution and component clearance.

In addition, two detector options are available: digital area (flat-panel) and line detectors (TDI lines).

component clearance
top and bottom
80 mm

5-30 µm

oblique radiation

Line and
area detectors

The integrated colour camera complements the X-ray inspection.

  • Checking of Pass and Bad marks
  • Reading barcodes or DMC directly in the system
  • Creation of coloured navigation and overview images for easier orientation
  • Colour image on-demand for verification station

In addition to fully automatic analysis, the AXI system can also be used as a manual analysis system.




assemblies in

random samples

An expert opinion from GÖPEL electronic

The fleX Line · 3D offers the customer maximum flexibility. It combines the latest drive technology with state-of-the-art X-ray technology. This mixture in combination with our comprehensive software package makes the system unique.

- Andreas Türk – Product Manager X-ray Systems -

the system

Loop mode
video sequences

Help with
error analysis


Live monitoring with digital lead glass

In addition to the integrated AOI camera, a full HD colour camera with wide-angle lens is built into the system. This "digital lead glass window" enables, among other things, a view into the interior during X-ray inspection.

Video sequences are recorded in a loop mode to analyse potential hardware problems in the inspection chamber afterwards. A function for automatically saving the video image when a machine fault occurs is also available. This helps the service staff to analyse the error and can provide important information about the cause in the event of a machine standstill.